PDCA cycle is the simplest and most effective way. People in shoe factories have an experience. It is a very simple thing to do simple things well in a factory. For example, 5S is very simple, but there are few shoe factories that really do 5S well. A shoe factory is a very good one as long as it does 5S well steadfastly. Excellent enterprise.
PDCA is also a very simple thing. It is easy to understand, but it is difficult to use. Like PDCA, 5S belongs to the kind of thing that is easy to understand, difficult to do and difficult to persist.
The origin and definition of PDCA cycle was first put forward by American quality management expert Deming, so it is also called “Deming Ring”. He is an American quality expert. After he put forward this quality management system in the United States, he went to Japan without being reused. So all quality management in Japan started by Dr. Deming.
The contents of PDCA are as follows:
P (Plan) – Plan
D (Do) – Implementation
C (Check) – Inspection
A (Action) – Action
Processing the results of the summary inspection, affirming the successful experience, properly promoting and standardizing; summarizing the lessons of failure, and putting the unresolved problems into the next PDCA cycle.
Everything is planned first, then implemented, checked in the process of implementation. After checking the results, the checked results are improved, implemented and improved. In this way, the problems that have not been improved are put into the next cycle, forming a PDCA cycle one by one. Among the four factors of PDCA, which is the most important for factory management cadres? It’s all important.
A priest was preaching in church and talking to a student: Do you know the difference between public security and religion? Students asked how these two things can be compared, and how can they talk differently? The priest said that the public security bureau took measures only after the crime had germinated and blossomed. But religion prevents the evil tree from germinating before it sprouts. Because religion persuades people to be good.
What do you want to learn when you are in management?
The four aspects of PDCA that can avoid problems are planning, because when planning, we think about what may happen, what may not happen, and how to avoid problems, so planning is important.
Check is what we find as soon as a problem occurs. Check allows us to discover it as soon as it occurs and before it becomes obvious, so planning and checking are important.
P and C are important for managerial cadres, but for workers, they are important for execution. Therefore, as managerial cadres, what we do every day is to make plans, which are not necessarily written out.
Let’s do one thing and think about how to do it. What if something goes wrong?
Is it a plan?
So who will implement the plan when it is done?
Let employees to implement, when employees implement, we check, check and find problems, let employees go. Here is the P, C is more important, as a management cadre, we must focus on P, C, so every day when you work, you think I planned today? Have I checked it today? Yes, it means that your cadre is qualified.
If you do what you do every day, then you are not a cadre, you are a super employee. If you do it, who will check it? Who plans?
Eight steps of PDCA cycle:
Finding problems, finding reasons, finding main causes, making plans, implementing, checking, summing up experience, raising new problems, and putting forward new problems enter the next cycle.
Each of us can do a small cycle of PDCA, each team has a medium cycle, each department has a large cycle, the whole enterprise is a large cycle, so everyone, every department can do PDCA.
“How can we grow up to be a management cadre? And it’s not bad. What’s the experience?
Answer: “There is only one experience, do PDCA every day.
How to do PDCA every day? Every morning when I enter the office, the first thing I want to do is think about what I am going to do today.
What’s my main job today?
What should I check?
What are the main plans?
Where is the most problematic place?
Where’s the easiest person to go wrong?
When they have all thought about it, they will arrange their work and let them do it.
Layout work for subordinates to do, do the process I check, check where? Assuming that this place is the easiest to go wrong, I often visit it. Worried about this man’s problems, I’ll go and stare at him. Every evening after work, summarize how the PDCA is doing today, and whether there is any room for improvement.
Doing PDCA every day also requires subordinates to do it, each section chief and every manager to do it. Give each of them a sheet of A4 paper with four squares on it. It says P-D-C-A. They are asked to think about what P has done, what D has done, what C has done, what A has done. Every day they have to write a few sentences on that square. What have you done? Don’t repeat every day. Repeat and you’re not making progress.
So, please form a daily PDCA cycle habit. It’s personal PDCA. Wake up in the morning and think about what to do today. What are the main points of management today? What’s the point? Where is the most problematic place today? Where is the place to check today? After every day’s work, recall where today’s improvements are?
Similarly, the PDCA of a department is very helpful to the progress of the department. PDCA of an enterprise is also very helpful to the enterprise.
The PDCA cycle has four distinct characteristics
1. Cycle after cycle
The four processes of the PDCA cycle do not end at one run, but go round and round. A cycle is over, some of the problems are solved, there may still be problems unsolved, or there may be new problems, then proceed to the next PDCA cycle, and so on. The idea of doing business is: standardization is to formulate some procedures and standards, and constantly improve procedures and standards; to constantly find problems and solve problems, and to do these two things well, the whole factory management will be in order.
Many factories are poorly managed because:
Standardization is not done well, the simplest tool for standardization is 5S, because 5S cultivates employees’literacy, and employees can do according to the standards.
Find problems and solve them. If 5S and PDCA are well done, the factory will be well managed. If these two are not well done, the factory will not be well managed. These two are the simplest, but they are the most basic things. Then, PDCA can help us to find and solve problems.
2. Big Ring and Small Ring
Similar to planetary gear train, the relationship between the whole operating system of a company or organization and its internal sub-systems is an organic logical combination of large ring and small ring.
PDCA cycle is not a cycle that stays at a level, and the process of solving problems is a process of gradual rise in the level.
4. Statistical tools
PDCA cycle applies scientific statistical concepts and processing methods. As an effective tool to promote work, identify problems and solve problems, the typical model is called “four stages” and “eight steps”.
Eight steps of PDCA cycle
1. Analyzing the current situation and finding problems
Before planning, what is the status quo? What’s the problem? It can analyze quality problems, delivery problems, safety problems and efficiency problems. The first step is to find the problem, just like a doctor.
2. Analyzing the Influencing Factors
The first step is pulse control. The second step is pulse control. By analyzing the influencing factors in various problems, we can use many methods, such as fishbone diagram, 5W2H, 4M (human, machine, material, method) and so on. What factors are there in the analysis by these methods?
3. Analysis of main factors
After all the analysis factors are analyzed, what are the main factors? Every problem has a few main factors. For example, there are ten factors influencing the problem. According to the 28 th principle, there are probably two or three main factors. Only by finding the main factors can we solve the problem thoroughly. If we can’t find the main factors, the problem can’t be solved.
After analyzing the main reasons, we should take measures for the main reasons. In taking measures, the following questions should be considered:
Why should we make this measure?
Why should this measure be formulated?
What are the goals to be achieved?
Where to do it?
Who will do it?
When will it be done?
How to do it?
This is 5W 1H: Why is the first W? Why do you do this? This is the most important thing. Why do you make this measure?
The second W is What. Where are we going? What goals are we going to pursue?
The third W is Where, where to do it?
Who is the fourth W, who is responsible for the completion?
When is the fifth W, when will it be completed?
There must be a starting time and a ending time. Every goal must have a deadline. An objective without a deadline is tantamount to no goal.
The last H is How, how to execute it?
These 5W 1H will all appear in our plan. We should consider these five issues.
Now there’s another H, 5W2H, How much, which is how much it costs to do this.
If the plan is good, but the input-output ratio may not be cost-effective, so we have to consider how much to spend every PDCA cycle. How much is the so-called financial quotient, which is very popular nowadays. Everything has a cost concept.
That is to do according to the requirements of the plan of measures, start to implement, implementation is generally required to implement the staff.
Compare the results of implementation with the objectives required.
There is a Kanban management. For example, today’s production is 2500 pairs. So, how many pairs are produced from 8 o’clock to 10 o’clock, from 10 o’clock to 12 o’clock, from 2 o’clock to 4 o’clock in the afternoon, and from 4 o’clock to 6 o’clock? It has a number that is planned and a number that is actual. Fill it in according to the actual situation, and this is the check.
The purpose of the inspection is to see whether our implementation process is effective or not.
If there is a problem to be checked, we should have phased goals when making plans. How to check if there is no phased goals? If this thing is completed in a month, we must say where we went in the first week, where we went in the second week, and where we went in the third week. If there is no such thing, we can’t do the inspection.
Therefore, a plan must be made by stages, even every day and every hour, with its goals, so that it can be checked at this time. If there is no such goal, it can not be checked. Compare the results after checking.
Successful experience is summed up and corresponding standards are formulated.
8. Bring unresolved or emerging problems to the table
Turning to the next PDCA cycle to solve each problem does not necessarily rely on a PDCA cycle, it can be solved, sometimes once, sometimes several times. Seeking a doctor is the same. The best way is to keep yourself healthy. Don’t go to a doctor. In other words, it’s best not to have problems. Sometimes problems can be solved not once or twice.
How to draw up a plan/determine the way to achieve the goal Two steps of drawing up a plan:
_Identifying goals and objectives
Make the situation of the problem (matter) clear to grasp the status quo;
Consider the goals or policies of superiors.
Predict changes in future situations or conditions (internal and external) and grasp possible problems;
We should distinguish the ultimate goal from the current one.
How to evaluate whether the goal is achieved or not?
Targets can be quantified.
Diversity goals should be prioritized.
Attention should be paid to objectives that do not conflict with the company or its superiors.
_Determining the Ways to Achieve Goals
1. Investigate Causality
2. Collect 4M and time, funds, places, etc.
3. Collate, analyze and judge the data in order to grasp the important reasons.
4. Consider the plan to achieve the goal according to the key or important factors; 5. Evaluate and select the best plan from multiple perspectives;
6. Make a plan, including 5W2H.
How to Implement Education Training and Work Implementation, Collective Education or One-to-One Practical Exercise in the Workplace
A foreman on the construction site knew that the water pipe was leaking. The water pipe was buried one metre below the ground. He wanted to find out the leaking water pipe, and he took a worker out with him. The worker was carrying a hoe. He drew a circle there and asked the worker to dig a pit one meter deep. When he saw that there was no water pipe, he made a mistake. Draw a circle here and say dig one metre deep. The worker digged another metre deep. At first glance, there was still no water pipe. The third place drew another circle. The worker threw his hoe and said, “You are neurotic, you are perverted. Dig a hole in the East and a hole in the west. If you don’t dig, dig it!”
We should not only tell him how to do it, so that he can understand the significance, inevitability, basis and reason of doing it, so as to stimulate his sense of responsibility and mission. How to motivate?
1. Systematic Education in 5W2H Way
You can also use 5W2H for education and training, that is, to tell him why to do it? Do what? When will it be done? Where to do it? Who will do it? How do you do it? How much does it cost? These things can also be told to him.
2. Stimulate subordinates to generate (intrinsic) motivation to inspire their enthusiasm for work
When you tell him, you can stimulate his subordinates’intrinsic motivation, and he has enthusiasm for work. Of course, it is also a very important thing to make employees feel more relaxed and happy. Everyone is unhappy. What can we do well? Therefore, education and training also has this one, telling them that happiness also needs to work, not happy also needs to work, it is better to be happy, this is what education and training should do.
3. Cooperating personnel and units should be adequately educated
When the training is finished and the implementation is started, you must clearly tell your subordinates what to do, what to do, and what to do, that is to say, the orders should be firm and not ambiguous. At least let him know that this must be done, and this can only be achieved by slowly forming a corporate culture.
4. Work implementation
Supervisors should clearly convey the will of “implementation” to subordinates and colleagues, and give orders that they should complete the work at one time. They should not be discouraged if they encounter difficulties in the process of implementation, and should actively encourage subordinates to authorize the collection of relevant data in addition to in-depth review.
How do many leaders teach their employees?
You first do the first step, then ask me after the first step, and I will tell you the second, third and fourth step, which is a very inefficient method.
A business leader was discussing his experience when he said: he found that his subordinates were too lack of initiative, kicked his buttocks and then moved, not kicking him still, angry, completely irresponsible. Later, he slowly reviewed and found that the reason for this was in himself, he arranged the work in this way, he was afraid that he knew too much and could not remember.
Later, after he found his own problems, he changed his way of doing it. For the first time, he told all the tasks to him, and then told the staff: you do it well, you do it well, I celebrate for you, you do it badly, and I take responsibility for you.
If you tell your employees this way, they will take it seriously. If you encounter difficulties, the subordinates will report to you: “Report leaders, what should we do when we encounter difficulties?” Give up.” At this time, we should give him inspiration, remember, the supervisor in front of the department, must say inspiring words, can not say negative words.
Some enterprises even formulate a regulation: all the supervisors are not allowed to speak negative words before the subordinates, once they find out that they will be dismissed and prosecuted; because we will encounter difficulties in the implementation process, at this time the subordinates most need confidence and encouragement.
5. How to check
Through investigation, we can make the problem obvious and grasp the reasons for the unreasonable deviation. We can use checking, observation, measurement, inspection, confirmation, analysis, judgment and other means to make the plan achieve its goal on time.
PDCA Cycle in Quality Management
PDCA cycle is standardization – Execution – check – then organization, there is another saying, is to first make a standard, to do, to find problems, check – improve – then do – standardization, these two cycles are similar.
Every time the PDCA cycle is rotated, the disadvantages will be reduced and the management level will be higher and higher.
Personal PDCA cycle, so that individuals continue to progress; Departmental PDCA cycle will also make departments continue to progress, step by step.
The PDCA cycle is actually a tool for continuous improvement.
Source: Network. The purpose of this article is to convey more information. It does not mean that the @Shoe Professor Platform agrees with this view. Please inform us if there is any interest in the company or the author. Thank you
Post time: Jul-08-2019